The critical translation between genotype, biochemistry, gene expression, biomarker tests, phenotype and personalized advice – based on evidence-based research – makes the difference in empowering consumers and practitioners in such a rapidly-evolving field.
Every two years, the world’s database doubles. Every three years, health information also doubles. By 2020, global healthcare data will double every three days – with 80% of the data being unstructured, with no clear relationship.
Think about something so common as nutrition. We are what we eat. But what really feeds you?
Food is not just the sum of its nutrients
The nutritional value of a food should be evaluated on the basis of the foodstuff as a whole, not as an effect of the individual nutrients. This is the conclusion of an international expert panel of epidemiologists, physicians, food and nutrition scientists. Their conclusion reshapes our understanding of the importance of nutrients and their interaction.
Source: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Whole dairy matrix or single nutrients in assessment of health effects: current evidence and knowledge gaps.
2017; 105 (5): 1033 DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.151548
Authors: Tanja Kongerslev Thorning, Hanne Christine Bertram, Jean-Philippe Bonjour, Lisette de Groot, Didier Dupont, Emma Feeney, Richard Ipsen,
Jean Michel Lecerf, Alan Mackie, Michelle C McKinley, Marie-Caroline Michalski, Didier Rémond, Ulf Risérus, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Tine Tholstrup,
Connie Weaver, Arne Astrup, Ian Givens
Propelling the paradigm shift from reductionism to systems nutrition
The complex physiology of living organisms represents a challenge for mechanistic understanding of the action of dietary bioactives in the human body and of their possible role in health and disease. Animal, cell and microbial models have been extensively used to address questions that could not be pursued experimentally in humans, posing an additional level of complexity in translation of the results to healthy and diseased metabolism.
The past few decades have witnessed a surge in development of increasingly sensitive molecular techniques and bioinformatic tools for storing, managing and analyzing increasingly large datasets. Application of such powerful means to molecular nutrition research led to a major leap in study designs and experimental approaches yielding experimental data connecting dietary components to human health, which target the growing field of nutritional systems biology interfacing personalized nutrition and preventive medicine, with the ultimate goal of promoting health and preventing or treating disease.
Source: Genes & Nutrition
Studying the relationship between genetics and nutrition in the improvement of human health
2017 12:3, DOI: 10.1186/s12263-016-0549-8
Authors: Jim Kaput, Giuditta Perozzi, Marijana Radonjic and Fabio Virgili
Current approaches to analyzing human nutrition focusing on individual nutrients are inadequate and should be replaced by a more holistic approach, a research paper suggests.
Researchers David Raubenheimer and Stephen Simpson for the University of Sydney say what they call “nutritionism” approaches have failed to combat the rise in obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD), in large because they lack an adequate framework to analyse human nutrition.
Nutritional ecology approach
Instead, they suggest an approach based on “nutritional ecology,” which aims to look at systems as a whole without emphasizing individual factors such as particular macronutrients such as fats or carbohydrates. The field of nutritional ecology shares many of the challenges of human nutrition science, but it has developed within the fundamental theoretical framework of ecology and evolution. Central to this framework is the premise that outcomes such as health and disease arise from the interaction between the animal and its environment. These interactions play out over a continuum of timescales, from short-term homeostatic responses to environmental variability, to the long-term process of natural selection driving adaptation through changes in population gene frequencies.
Source: Annual Review of Nutrition
Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-071715-051118
“Nutritional Ecology And Human Health”
Authors: Raubenheimer, D.; Simpson, S.J.